He remained there for three days, until being discovered by a family member and brought home. Despite this education, biographers Alexander Pantsov and Steven Levine commented that the "moral-ethical precepts of Confucius seem to have left not a trace in his soul". Aged thirteen, Mao left Shaoshan Primary School, pleased to have gotten away from what he saw as its oppressive atmosphere.
The decision had been made by his father, who wanted Mao to devote his attentions to the family business by working on the farm and managing the financial accounts. Published in , the book lamented the deterioration of Chinese power in East Asia, and argued for technological, economic and political reform, believing that China could be strengthed if it abandoned its absolute monarchy and politically modelling itself on the representative democracies and constitutional monarchies of the Western world. Yichang decided to organise an arranged marriage for Mao, selecting for him the seventeen-year-old Luo Yigu , the daughter of a local landowner.
Although unhappy with the arrangement, Mao agreed to go through with the marriage, with the wedding taking place in or According to his later account however, he never consummated the marriage and refused to live with Luo. Like Guanying's book, it called on China to adopt foreign techniques to strengthen itself, and to use them to defend itself from foreign aggression.
In the autumn of , Mao requested that his father permit him to attend the Dongshan Higher Primary School, which was located fifteen miles from Shaoshan; unlike the Shaoshan Primary School, this establishment taught modern subjects such as natural sciences. Yichang agreed to fund his son's tuition and dormitory space, and so the sixteen-year-old Mao set off to Dongshan with his older cousin, Wen Yunchang, who was also enrolled there.
In , Mao convinced his father to allow him to attend middle school in Changsha. While some advocated a reformist transition to a constitutional monarchy , most revolutionaries advocated republicanism , arguing for an elected presidency. The primary figurehead behind the republican movement was Sun Yat-sen , an American-educated Christian who led a secret society known as the Tongmenghui. Inspired by Sun's republicanism, the army rose up against the emperor across southern China, sparking the Xinhai Revolution.
Changsha initially remained under monarchist control, with the governor proclaiming martial law to quell protest. When the infantry brigade guarding the city defected to the revolution, the governor fled, leaving the city in republican hands. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor, and hoping to avoid a civil war, Sun Yat-sen—proclaimed "provisional president" by his supporters—compromised with the monarchist general Yuan Shikai.
The monarchy would be abolished, creating the Republic of China , but the monarchist Yuan would become president. The Xinhai Revolution over, Mao resigned from the army in , after six months of being a soldier. Returning to education, Mao enrolled and dropped out of a police academy, a soap-production school, a law school and an economics school. His father only approved of the latter, but the lectures were in English, which Mao didn't understand, and so Mao abandoned it for the government-run Changsha Middle School; he soon dropped out of this too, finding it rooted in Confucianism.
China Little Red Book Quotations Chairman Mao
Desiring to become a teacher, Mao enrolled at a teacher training college, the Fourth Normal School of Changsha, which had high standards, yet low fees and cheap accommodation. Several months later, it merged with the First Normal School of Changsha, widely seen as the best school in Hunan.
Although a Chinese nationalist , Chen argued that China must look to the west, adopting "Mr.
Democracy and Mr. Science" in order to cleanse itself of superstition and autocracy. In his first school year, Mao befriended an older student, Xiao Zisheng ; together they went on a walking tour of Hunan, begging and writing literary couplets to obtain food. He used his position to forge an Association for Student Self-Government, leading protests against school rules. Desiring personal and societal transformation, the Society gained between 70 and 80 members, including some females, many of whom would go on to join the Communist Party. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mao Zedong.
Shaoshanchong, Shaoshan. Other boys of the same era could expect less than Zedong got. He did not go hungry. His clothes were few but they were not rags. His mother put order and dignity into the life of the household. Zedong's big problem was his father. His yearnings were of the spirit. In early life, Mao was influenced by the publications of two revolutionaries, Sun Yat-sen left and Chen Duxiu right , both of whom argued that China had to adopt various western political philosophies in order to modernise. Carter, Peter London: Oxford University Press.
Chang, Jung ; Halliday, Jon Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Jonathan Cape. Feigon, Lee Mao: A Reinterpretation. In the end, Zhang refused to compromise and placed himself under the protection of the KMT secret police.
- tlc february 6 astrology?
- Zhou Enlai.
- horoscope born january 11.
The entire episode was a serious setback for Zhou's attempts to improve the prestige of the Party. As a senior Communist statesman holding the rank of lieutenant-general, Zhou was the only Communist to hold a high-level position within the Nationalist government.
Zhou used his influence within the Military Committee to promote Nationalist generals that he believed were capable, and to promote cooperation with the Red Army. In the Tai'erzhuang campaign , Zhou used his influence to ensure that the most capable Nationalist general available, Li Zongren be appointed overall commander, despite Chiang's reservations about Li's loyalty.
When Chiang was hesitant to commit troops to the defense of Tai'erzhuang , Zhou convinced Chiang to do so by promising that the Communist Eighth Route Army would simultaneously attack the Japanese from the north, and that the New Fourth Army would sabotage the Tianjin-Pukou railroad , cutting off Japanese supplies. In the end, the defense of Tai'erzhuang was a major victory for the Nationalists, killing 20, Japanese soldiers and capturing a large amount of supplies and equipment. While in Wuhan Zhou adopted a young girl, Sun Weishi , in Zhou came upon the sixteen-year-old Sun crying outside of the Eighth Route Army Liaison Office because she had been refused permission to travel to Yan'an, due to her youth and lack of political connections.
After Zhou befriended and adopted her as his daughter, Sun was able to travel to Yan'an. She pursued a career in acting and direction, and later became the first female director of spoken drama huaju in the PRC. Zhou also adopted Sun's brother, Sun Yang. In Zhou met and befriended another orphan, Li Peng. Li was only three when, in , his father was also killed by the Kuomintang.
Zhou Enlai - Wikipedia
Zhou subsequently looked after him in Yan'an. After the war, Zhou systematically groomed Li for leadership and sent him to be educated in energy-related engineering in Moscow. Zhou's placement of Li within the powerful energy bureaucracy shielded Li from Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution , and Li's eventual rise to the level of Premier surprised no one. When the Japanese army approached Wuhan in the fall of , the Nationalist Army engaged the Japanese in the surrounding regions for over four months, allowing the KMT to withdraw farther inland, to Chongqing , bringing with them important supplies, assets, and many refugees.
While he was en route to Chongqing, Zhou was nearly killed in the "fire of Changsha" , which lasted for three days, destroyed two thirds of the city, killed twenty thousand civilians, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. This fire was deliberately caused by the retreating Nationalist army in order to prevent the city from falling to the Japanese.
Due to an organizational error it was claimed , the fire was begun without any warning to the residents of the city.
After escaping from Changsha , Zhou took refuge in a Buddhist temple in a nearby village and organized the evacuation of the city. Zhou demanded that the causes of the fire be thoroughly investigated by authorities, that those responsible be punished, that reparations be given to the victims, that the city be thoroughly cleaned up, and that accommodations be provided for the homeless. In the end, the Nationalists blamed three local commanders for the fire and executed them. Zhou Enlai reached Chongqing in December , and resumed the official and unofficial operations that he had been conducting in Wuhan in January Zhou's activities included those required by his formal positions within the Nationalist government, his running of two pro-Communist newspapers, and his covert efforts to form reliable intelligence networks and increase the popularity and organization of CCP organizations in southern China.
At its peak, the staff working under him in both official and covert roles totaled several hundred people. Soon after arriving in Chongqing, Zhou successfully lobbied the Nationalist government to release Communist political prisoners. After their release, Zhou often assigned these former prisoners as agents to organize and lead Party organizations throughout southern China.
The efforts of Zhou's covert activities were extremely successful, increasing CCP membership across southern China tenfold within months. Chiang was somewhat aware of these activities and introduced efforts to suppress them, but was generally unsuccessful.
Mao Tse Tung
In July , while in Yan'an to attend a series of Politburo meetings, Zhou had an accident horseback riding in which he fell and fractured his right elbow. Because there was little medical care available in Yan'an, Zhou traveled to Moscow for medical treatment, using the occasion to brief the Comintern on the status of the united front. Zhou arrived in Moscow too late to mend the fracture, and his right arm remained bent for the rest of his life.
Joseph Stalin was so displeased with the CCP's refusal to work more closely with the Nationalists that he refused to see Zhou during his stay. She remained in Moscow after Zhou left in order to study for a career in theatre. On 4 May , the Politburo accepted Zhou's assessment that Zhou should focus his efforts on creating a network of secret CCP agents working covertly and for long periods.
Communists were directed to join the KMT, if doing so would increase the ability of agents to infiltrate the KMT administrative, educational, economic, and military establishments. Under the cover of the Office of the Eighth Route Army moved to a stately building on the outskirts of Chongqing , Zhou adopted a series of measures to expand the CCP intelligence network. Over the course of the next year, the relationship between the two parties degenerated into arrests and executions of Party members, covert attempts by agents of both sides to eliminate each other, propaganda efforts attacking each other, and major military clashes.
The united front was officially abolished after the Anhui Incident in January , when 9, Communist soldiers of the New Fourth Army were ambushed, and their commanders either killed or imprisoned by government troops.
Birth Chart: Mao Tse Tung (Capricorn)
He maintained propaganda efforts via the newspapers that he directed and kept in close contact with foreign journalists and ambassadors. Yan Baohang , a secret Party member active in Chongqing diplomatic circles, informed Zhou that Hitler was planning to attack the Soviet Union on 22 June Under Zhou's signature, this information reached Stalin on 20 June, two days before Hitler attacked.
Despite worsening relations with Chiang Kai-shek , Zhou operated openly in Chongqing, befriending Chinese and foreign visitors and staging public cultural activities, especially Chinese theater. Zhou cultivated a close personal friendship with General Feng Yuxiang , making it possible for Zhou to circulate freely among the officers of the Nationalist Army. Zhou's intelligence agents penetrated the Sichuanese army of General Deng Xihou , resulting in Deng's secret agreement to supply ammunition to the Communist New Fourth Army.
Zhou convinced another Sichuanese general, Li Wenhui , to covertly install a radio transmitter that facilitated secret communication between Yan'an and Chongqing. Zhou befriended Zhang Zhizhong and Nong Yun , commanders in the Yunnan armed forces, who became secret CCP members, agreed to cooperate with the CCP against Chiang Kai-shek, and established a clandestine radio station that broadcast Communist propaganda from the provincial government building in Kunming. Zhou remained the primary CCP representative to the outside world during his time in Chongqing.
Zhou and his aides Qiao Guanhua , Gong Peng and Wang Bingnan enjoyed receiving foreign visitors and made a favorable impression among American, British, Canadian, Russian, and other foreign diplomats. Zhou struck visitors as charming, urbane, hard-working, and living a very simple lifestyle.